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Sweden opening military bases to US military won't get "security guarantees"

瑞典向美軍開(kāi)放基地難獲“安全保障”

來(lái)源:China Military Online 責任編輯:Li Jiayao
2024-06-26 10:56:40

By Sun Qi

孫琦

The Swedish parliament recently approved a defense cooperation agreement signed with the US last December, allowing the US military to deploy servicemembers and supplies and carry out exercises at all the 17 military bases, military airports and ground force stations across the country. Sweden approved the agreement to strengthen its military cooperation with the US and obtain some sort of "security guarantees" amid the protracted Russia-Ukraine conflict, but this decision will only make it more insecure.

不久前,瑞典議會(huì )批準了去年12月同美國簽署的一項防務(wù)合作協(xié)議,允許美軍使用瑞典全境17個(gè)軍事基地、軍用機場(chǎng)和地面部隊駐地。根據協(xié)議,美軍可在這些地方部署軍事人員和物資并進(jìn)行演習。在俄烏沖突持續延宕的背景下,瑞典急于加強同美國的軍事合作,以期從中獲得某種“安全保障”,但只會(huì )讓其離安全越來(lái)越遠。

"The agreement makes it clear that US military personnel won't be bound by Swedish laws, which means the US can carry out military activities in the country without hindrance," said Cui Hongjian, director of the Center of the European Union and Regional Development Studies, Beijing Foreign Studies University. Since the breakout of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, Sweden, becoming increasingly concerned about the so-called security threats from Russia, has consistently enhanced its military cooperation with the US, including opening all its domestic military bases to the US. It also seeks a military framework integration with the US-led NATO to merge into its combat system more quickly.

“這一協(xié)議明確了美軍事人員不受瑞典法律的約束,意味著(zhù)美軍可‘不受阻礙’地在瑞典境內開(kāi)展相關(guān)軍事行動(dòng)?!北本┩鈬Z(yǔ)大學(xué)歐盟與區域發(fā)展研究中心主任崔洪建表示,俄烏沖突爆發(fā)以來(lái),瑞典方面對所謂來(lái)自俄羅斯的安全威脅認知不斷上升,持續深化同美國的雙邊軍事合作,向美國開(kāi)放其境內所有軍事基地便是其中一項重要內容。同時(shí),瑞典還謀求與美國主導下的北約進(jìn)行軍事框架整合,加速融入北約作戰體系。

In addition to Sweden, the US signed defense agreements with Finland and Denmark. The three countries have collectively opened up to 35 military bases to the US military. This, coupled with similar agreements signed with Norway and Iceland before, has further reinforced the US' military presence in Northern Europe and facilitated its future maneuvers in the North Pole region.

除瑞典外,美國還與芬蘭、丹麥簽署了防務(wù)合作協(xié)議,三國共向美國開(kāi)放多達35處軍事基地。加之美國與挪威、冰島此前已簽署類(lèi)似防務(wù)協(xié)議,美軍在北歐地區的軍事存在將進(jìn)一步加強,未來(lái)前出北極地區也將更為便捷。

"Compared with other Nordic countries, Sweden has adopted more radical military policies," said Cui, who attributed that to Sweden's unique geostrategic position and the prospect of military integration with NATO. Geographically, Sweden doesn't share a long borderline with Russia like Finland does, so it has less qualms about elevating its military ties with the US. Meanwhile, its Gotland is of great military and strategic significance for controlling the Baltic Sea route, including the route to the Gulf of Finland and Russia's second largest city, St. Petersburg. Moreover, Sweden's military industry is highly localized, giving it more confidence to enhance its military strengths. All these factors have combined to drive its recent policy shift.

“同北歐其他國家相比,瑞典目前采取的軍事政策顯得更為激進(jìn)?!贝藓榻ㄕJ為,這是由其獨特的地緣戰略位置,以及與北約的軍事整合前景決定的。從地理位置上看,瑞典不像芬蘭那樣和俄羅斯有漫長(cháng)的共同邊境線(xiàn),在升級同美國的軍事關(guān)系時(shí),對俄羅斯的顧忌相對較少。但其所屬哥得蘭島具有重要的軍事戰略意義,從這里可以控制波羅的海的海上航線(xiàn),包括通往芬蘭灣以及俄第二大城市圣彼得堡的通道。另外,瑞典軍工產(chǎn)業(yè)的本土化水平較高,對自身軍事實(shí)力的信心也就更強。這些因素共同構成了瑞典近期政策轉向的內在邏輯。

"From the US' perspective, it has signed a series of bilateral defense deals with the Nordic countries recently, aiming to take advantage of the Ukraine crisis to build and reinforce NATO's north wing." According to Cui, for some time now, NATO has made special efforts to apply geopolitical containment and suppression against Russia along the line from the three Baltic states to Central and Eastern European countries. After the Ukraine crisis broke out, especially with the admission of Finland and Sweden to NATO, the north wing has become a key direction of the US and NATO's deterrence against Russia. If any Nordic state requests, the US' nuclear umbrella may well extend to Northern Europe or even the North Pole. Besides, how the Russia-Ukraine conflict will go also bears heavily on the formation and expansion of the north wing.

“從美國的角度看,其近來(lái)和北歐國家紛紛簽署系列雙邊防務(wù)協(xié)議,意在利用烏克蘭危機打造并加強所謂的北約北翼?!贝藓榻ū硎?,一段時(shí)間以來(lái),北約重點(diǎn)從波羅的海三國到中東歐國家一線(xiàn)來(lái)對俄進(jìn)行地緣圍堵施壓。烏克蘭危機爆發(fā)后,特別是芬蘭、瑞典加入北約后,北約北翼成為美國和北約對俄進(jìn)行前沿威懾的一個(gè)重要方向。如果北歐國家提出要求,美國的核保護傘可能繼續延伸到北歐地區甚至北極地區。同時(shí),俄烏沖突的走向,也會(huì )對北約北翼的成型以及擴張產(chǎn)生重要影響。

In response to NATO's northern expansion, Russian President Vladimir Putin has signed an order approving the re-establishment of the Moscow and Leningrad military districts to enhance the military deployments in the northwest of the country. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said they will deploy weapons and equipment in the two military districts to cope with security threats arising from Sweden and Finland's entry into NATO.

針對北約的北擴,俄羅斯總統普京已簽署法令,批準重設莫斯科軍區和列寧格勒軍區,增強俄西北部軍事力量。俄外長(cháng)拉夫羅夫表示,俄將在這兩個(gè)軍區部署武器裝備,以應對瑞典、芬蘭加入北約后對俄安全構成的威脅。

Cui analyzed that Russia may make some targeted moves in areas where it shares borders with those countries located in the north wing of NATO and the Baltic region, including deploying tactical nuclear weapons and the "Iskander" missile, organizing military drills, and testing advanced weapons such as the hypersonic missile. The increasingly longer frontline and more intense confrontation between NATO and Russia will exert lasting negative impacts on Europe's security situation.

在崔洪建看來(lái),俄羅斯接下來(lái)的軍事回應,或將主要集中在與北約北翼國家接壤的地區以及波羅的海,采取一些針?shù)h相對的動(dòng)作,包括部署戰術(shù)核武器和“伊斯坎德?tīng)枴睂?、舉行軍事演習、試驗高超音速導彈等先進(jìn)武器等。北約與俄羅斯之間對抗戰線(xiàn)不斷延長(cháng)、對抗烈度持續走高,將對整個(gè)歐洲地區的安全局勢產(chǎn)生長(cháng)期的消極影響。

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